Water Services

Water Treatment and Purification Chemicals

Water takes quite a journey before it reaches your faucet. Along the way, it can pick up minerals and other contaminants that can cause problems for your plumbing and water-using appliances.

water filtration

Filtering your water can remove many harmful substances, including germs like Cryptosporidium. Look for filters that have an absolute 1-micron pore size to ensure that even the smallest particles and chemicals are caught. Click Here to learn more.

Chemicals are a vital part of water treatment and purification. They serve a wide range of purposes, from killing harmful bacteria to removing objectionable taste and odors.

Chemical disinfectants like chlorine, chloramines, and pure chlorine dioxide are commonly used for disinfecting drinking water. Chlorine works well on many harmful pathogens but can be toxic to humans as an eye, nose and lung irritant if handled improperly or in high doses. Chlorine also reacts with natural organic substances in water to form potentially carcinogenic byproducts known as trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids.

Other chemicals used in drinking water are algaecides that kill green or blue-green algal blooms, such as copper sulfate, iron salts, and rosin amine salts. They are often combined with aeration to reduce the toxins algae produce before they die.

Other chemical processes include sedimentation, a process that separates solids from water by floating them on the surface of the liquid (flocs), and filtration. Clear water from sedimentation is then filtered through filters with different pore sizes and materials, such as sand, gravel, and activated carbon, to remove dissolved chemicals, germs, and particles. These filters are usually re-used.


A water filter can remove harmful bacteria and viruses from your drinking water. These contaminants can cause many different problems, including gastrointestinal issues and even meningitis and hepatitis. The most common method of water filtration is a mechanical system that removes particulates from the water. This process is usually used for surface water sources, such as lakes and rivers. This method also filters out coliforms, which are bacteria associated with human waste and can cause short-term illnesses.

Chemical treatment techniques involve adding chemicals to the water that change its structure or make it more easily absorbed. This is typically done through prechlorination and sand filtration. This is a more expensive method of water filtration, but it can be more effective than mechanical methods.

A recent study examined bacterial communities in a water treatment plant using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA and PICRUSt prediction software to predict functions. They found that the bacterial community structures of ozonation effluent, biofilms on sand filters, and disinfected water varied with seasonal changes in source water quality. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in all samples, and their relative abundances increased after chlorine disinfection. The bacterial community structures of raw and preozonation effluent samples correlated with pH, turbidity, and ammonia nitrogen.


Sediment is any granular material, organic or inorganic, that can be transported by water or wind 1. Sediment can contain sand, silt and clay from erosion and weathering. It can also be organic in origin, consisting of detritus (decomposing leaves and algae) or inorganic biogenic material, such as sulfides 2.

Sediments can carry contaminants, such as metals and persistent bioaccumulative toxics, which are detrimental to human and aquatic health 39. Contaminated sediments typically originate from point-source pollution (e.g., chemical spills), though they can also occur when runoff from contaminated soils (mine waste, landfills and urban areas) is carried downstream 36.

A sediment filter uses mechanical filtration to physically block unwanted particulates from entering your home’s water supply. This filter removes larger particles, such as sand and dirt, and is ideal for well water or city drinking water.

A sediment filter also reduces the amount of plastic bottled water you use, which are non-biodegradable and contaminate wildlife when they end up in landfills or in lakes, rivers or streams. This also helps reduce your carbon footprint by using less energy to produce and transport the plastic bottles that would otherwise be used by you and your family.


The microorganisms in water may be beneficial or harmful depending on their species. The microorganisms in drinking water may help in the purification of the water through biodegradation, or they may be human pathogens causing disease. These organisms include bacteria, archaea, fungi (such as yeasts and molds), algae, and viruses.

These microorganisms can be found everywhere on Earth and even on the International Space Station. They are tiny and cannot be seen with the naked eye. The term “microorganism” was first used by Anton van Leeuwenhoek in 1675 when he observed bacteria and other microscopic organisms using his microscope.

There are more bacteria in a cup of soil than there are people on Earth. Some of these bacteria, such as Streptomyces, produce antibiotics that are sometimes used in medicine. Other bacteria, such as Sphaerotilus natans, can unlock nitrogen and phosphorus from the soil for plants so they can grow with less fertilizer.

These bacteria are also important in sewage treatment, where they decompose the sludge and release methane gas for use as energy. They can also cause a variety of diseases including tuberculosis, cholera, diphtheria, and anthrax. These types of bacteria are typically more common in well water than in municipal water because they can enter the water through fecal matter and animal wastes.


Fluoride is an ionic compound of the element fluorine. The chemical is the 13th most abundant element on Earth and can be found in all natural water sources to some degree. It is also found in minerals such as fluorite and in volcanic and geothermal areas. Because of its low dissociation energy, fluorine is able to bond with other elements and minerals, such as calcium and sodium.

It’s been scientifically proven that adding 0.7 to 1.2 parts per million of fluoride to drinking water prevents tooth decay. It is found naturally in many foods and some drinks, including milk, tea and coffee, and it can be added to public water supplies as well.

A variety of water filters remove fluoride from the water supply. One of the most popular is a reverse osmosis system. These systems force the water through a semipermeable membrane that allows only water molecules to pass through. Any contaminants and impurities that are larger than water molecules will be rejected by the membrane. Reverse osmosis is also a great option for removing other chemicals from your water, including nitrates and chlorine. It is very effective at reducing unpleasant tastes and odours, as well as preventing limescale build-up.


Nitrates are found in drinking water, mainly from fertilizer runoff and sewage discharge. They can cause water pollution and lead to a reduction in dissolved oxygen levels. They also contribute to eutrophication, which can accelerate plant growth and alter the composition of a stream’s ecosystem.

While nitrates are found in the soil and may be ingested through consuming plants, they can also be added to processed meats like deli meats and hot dogs for their ability to keep them pink and prevent bacteria from growing. However, nitrates that are added to meats can be converted into harmful nitrosamines, which have been linked to an increased risk of cancer.

Nitrates that are naturally ingested in fruits, vegetables and grains can be converted into nitric oxide by the body, which performs various physiological functions such as decreasing blood pressure, improving epicardial blood flow through vasodilation, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and blunting coronary steal. In a stress-induced gastric ulcer model, dietary nitrate was found to protect against stomach mucosal damage by increasing salivary nitrate secretion and nitrite formation through non-enzymatic synthesis [42]. Nitrates that are ingested in processed meats can be more easily converted to harmful nitrosamines than nitrates that occur naturally. This is why it’s important to only eat grass-fed beef, organic veggies and wild-caught fish when possible.


Lead is a harmful metal that can leach into drinking water from pipes and soldering. Water filters can help reduce the amount of lead in drinking water.

Lead in drinking water is especially dangerous for children and pregnant women. It can cause long-term health problems and even permanent brain damage.

Many public water systems test their drinking water for lead. You can also request a free sample from your local water authority. However, these tests only measure the levels of contaminants in your home’s water supply and may not include all potential contaminants. The best way to check for lead in your home’s water is to get a direct sample tested by an independent lab.

You can purchase a point-of-use (POU) or whole-house filter to protect against lead in your household plumbing. You should also consider using cold tap water for cooking and drinking since hot water contains more lead than cold. Also, make sure to regularly replace your water filter.